CHA Family Medicine Residency

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No more codeine

FDA: The safety of codeine in children 18 years of age and younger  12/10/2015

Reference ID: 3200177

This is kind of old news, but FDA is coming down harder on codeine-containing meds, especially in kids and adolescents. Includes similar conclusions by European Medicines Agency. A lot of information in this document, including some good graphics on pharmacology and why codeine can be so dangerous.

I would broaden that to “all humans”. Probably other species as well. Really just no good indication for codeine for anything. Any combination drug with a “C” or “AC” after it could contain codeine. Also, of course, “Tylenol #3”. I still  see a lot of Cheratussin AC out there, sadly sometimes prescribed by Malden providers.

Let’s just not use this stuff at all.

Especially if you see a child who has been prescribed it by some ED or urgent care. Tell them to throw it out.

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Let them eat cake!

Randomized Trial of Introduction of Allergenic Foods in Breast-Fed Infants – n engl j med 374;18 nejm.org May 5, 2016

The plot thickens. I can’t imagine how difficult it must have been to try to cram all that stuff into a 3-4 month old! The four we had would have spit out at least 75%. I compute the NNT to be around 66 overall, and 20 in the “per protocol” analysis. – even though the P value was high (need to figure out how to reduce unnecessary variance in babies!).

Bottom line for me is that it’s ok to ask babies if they want to try some interesting foods, starting at around 4 months of age, including those who might be at high risk for food allergy. Most of the stuff on the web, powered by AAP and USDA, says start introduction of solids between 4 and 6 months. WIC starts handing out baby food at 6 months, but they ok introducing solids between 4 and 6 months. Unclear whether these recent studies are going to change those eminence-based recommendations.

http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/feedinginfants-ch7.pdf

  • Introduce foods to a baby that have been previously introduced,with no problems, by the baby’s parents;
  • Introduce new foods one at a time;
  • Introduce new foods gradually, for example, wait at least 1 week(7 days) between each new food;
  • Introduce a small amount (e.g., about 1 to 2 teaspoons) of a new food at first (this allows a baby to adapt to a food’s flavor and texture);
  • Use single-ingredient foods at first to easily see how the baby reacts to each new food. Caregivers who are preparing foods at home for a baby and older children should separate the baby’s portion before adding other ingredients; and
  • Observe the baby closely for reactions after feeding a new food


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Quinolones and FDA

FDA: Quinolones are mo’ bad.

http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm500665.htm

Avoid antibiotics in general. Right?

Nitrofurantoin seems generally ok for UTI, but some elders weird-out on that as well.

Macrolides can kill you. Suddenly. Rarely. Especially azithro. QTc and whatnot.

Amoxicillin, cephalosporins of course are options.

Doxycycline is sometimes forgotten as an option for respiratory/cutaneous/GI/GU infections. Don’t go in the sun.

SXT-TMP (Bactrim) – effective for a lot of infections, but E coli often resistant.

Consider IM ceftriaxone for elderly in nursing home with UTI